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What is 4K HDR? Here' everything you need to know.
If you haven’t been shopping for a new TV in a while, you’re in for a treat. TV technology has improved by leaps and bounds in just a few short years. Of course, that also means you’ll have to do a little bit of homework before you get around to shopping. Here’s everything you need to know about 4K HDR and related TV specs so you can make an informed purchase.
See also: The best TV deals
What is 4K HDR?
Before we get into the nitty-gritty, something to make clear is that 4K and HDR are not competing standards in any way. You won’t have to worry about choosing one over the other, and ideally, you want both on the same TV.
Now that we’ve clarified that, HDR stands for High Dynamic Range. It’s essentially the range of colors and brightness levels a display can produce, ranging from the darkest blacks to the brightest whites. OLED TVs are especially known for their dynamic range because they can shut off individual pixels, resulting in a true black. Brightness is measured in “nits” (candelas per square meter, technically), and some newer TVs can achieve thousands of nits compared to a few hundred nits on standard dynamic range (SDR) sets.
You’ve presumably heard of 4K by this point, and what that refers to is display resolution. Specifically the 4K number comes from a horizontal pixel count that actually totals 3,840, but a “3.84K TV” doesn’t have the same ring. 4K displays also measure 2,160 pixels tall, and if you’ve seen the term UHD, that’s essentially interchangeable with 4K.
What do 8-bit, 10-bit, and 12-bit mean?
You may have noticed the terms 8-bit, 10-bit, and 12-bit while looking for a 4K HDR display. These are important to know in understanding your color options.
For starters, 8-bit used to be commonplace, and means that a TV can produce 256 variations of red, green, and blue. A quick bit of math tells us that it comes out to 16,777,216 total colors, which was the VGA standard for many years. With the advent of 4K HDR we can send more light through a TV, which translates to more colors.
To be precise, 10-bit displays can produce 1,024 different shades across red, blue, and yellow. Multiplying the three together results in 1,073,741,824 total color options, and that’s just the beginning. 12-bit TVs take things four times further, with 4,096 shades, and 68,719,476,736 total colors. You’d need an immensely bright display, however, to notice a difference between the 10-bit and 12-bit ranges.
HDR10 vs HDR10 Plus vs Dolby Vision
If HDR wasn’t complicated enough, there are different standards for the technology that you need to know. Here’s how to differentiate between HDR10, HDR10 Plus, and Dolby Vision:
HDR10 isn’t as powerful as Dolby Vision, but it’s far more affordable for manufacturers to adopt, since it’s an open standard and doesn’t involve paying royalties to Dolby. Theoretically it allows up to 10,000 nits of peak brightness, though in reality most HDR10 video is mastered between 1,000 and 4,000 nits. It does achieve a 10-bit color range, so you should see over 1 billion total colors per pixel.
These features make HDR10 an easy choice for manufacturers, but a significant downside is that video metadata remains static. Adjustments can’t be made on the fly to preserve creative intent, so some scenes in shows and movies may not look as perfect as they could.
HDR10 Plus improves on its predecessor with the addition of dynamic metadata, which keeps content display more accurate. Adjustments can be made per-scene or even per-frame, though of course, video creators have to specifically target Plus for you to receive the benefits. It’s a 10-bit format capable of up to 10,000 nits of peak brightness.
While the standard is open, it was originally announced by Samsung and Amazon in 2017, and can be harder to find on both TVs and video services than regular HDR10. Nevertheless there are now hundreds of Plus-capable TVs from makers like Samsung, Panasonic, and Hisense, and supported services include the likes of Hulu and YouTube, not just Prime Video. A variety of Blu-ray discs support the standard as well, some examples being Alien, 1917, Back to the Future, and The Wizard of Oz.
Dolby Vision is slightly older than HDR10, yet it’s not as popular for one good reason: manufacturers have to pay royalties to launch TVs with Vision onboard. As a result, most vendors choose to avoid the extra cost and provide a more affordable product.
Like its counterparts, Vision tops out at 10,000 nits, with content more typically mastered at 4,000 nits or below. The reason to spend extra on it is that it offers both dynamic metadata and 12-bit color, making for some of the richest possible images. In fact you probably won’t find a TV that can take full advantage of the format, so you may want to choose HDR10 over Vision based on the difference in cost.
Some higher-end TVs have a feature called Vision IQ. Combined with metadata, this uses an ambient light sensor to adjust HDR for your room’s current lighting. Without it, you may have to adjust your TV’s brightness manually to get HDR’s full effect.
See also: The best Android TV boxes you can get
Do you need 10-bit or 12-bit 4K HDR?
As of right now, live TV doesn’t generally support 10-bit color, much less 12-bit. You can, however, take advantage of those technologies on select streaming services and Blu-ray discs. Netflix for example has videos in HDR10 and Dolby Vision, although you’ll need the company’s expensive Premium plan, and not every video will be compatible with your format of choice.
Also remember that any streaming devices and HDMI cables will need to be compatible, not just your TV. Thankfully, even low-cost streamers like the Chromecast with Google TV now support both HDR10+ and Dolby Vision. Make sure you’re using an HDMI 2.0b cable or better if you’re not using a TV’s built-in apps.
What should you look for?
Now that you have a foundation in 4K HDR, it’s time to start shopping. You’ll notice hundreds of different options with plenty of different labels. Never forget that 4K and UHD mean the same thing, and that while many HDR TVs are 4K, not all 4K TVs have HDR. Here’s what else to look out for:
This is where manufacturers can get tricky. Some will label their TVs as HDR even if they only support 8-bit color. They can do this because HDR is classified by both contrast and color depth, and in this case you are getting more of the former, i.e. a wider difference between the blackest blacks and the whitest whites.
Some manufacturers aim for the most nits they can produce. This results in a much brighter panel, and it will at least look better than a standard-range 8-bit TV.
Rec 2020 color
You may not have heard the term before, but Rec 2020 is a standard primarily about color range, a.k.a color gamut. It can come in 10-bit or 12-bit varieties, and works with 4K and 8K TVs. There’s a Rec 2100 standard specifically for HDR, although it uses the same gamut as 2020.
This range is supported by a TV’s processor rather than its panel, so you need to check if it’s actually enabled. Some manufacturers may produce TVs with 10- or 12-bit panels, yet without support for Rec 2020. A manufacturer could therefore label a TV as HDR and meet brightness requirements, but not offer extra colors to match.
Well, there you have it — pretty much everything we can tell you about 4K HDR TVs. Hopefully, we’ve helped you narrow down your options, and feel free to check out some of our TV deals hubs when you’re ready to shop.
Read more: The best OLED TV deals