Why is Samsung’s breakthrough in graphene research so promising for next generation electronics?

April 4, 2014

    graphene_bendy_display_rtr3cw81_ah_60460 Allianz

    Samsung has announced some great news, they’ve made a breakthrough in graphene manufacturing. Graphene is that magical carbon substance that is destined to provide the world with next generation efficiency and flexibility for electronic components, such as flexible displays and wearable technology.

    The Samsung partnership between the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) and Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea, has figured out a way to produce large amounts of graphene using methods that could prove economical to full scale commercial manufacturing. As the cost to create graphene has been the largest barrier to its use in everyday electronics, this is a breakthrough that we should all be pleased about.

    Why is this important?

    As we demand more and more out of our everyday electronics like smartphones, tablets, and especially wearables like smartwatches, manufacturers face constant limitations of current building materials. Silicon is the predominant material utilized to build the individual electronic components within your favorite touchscreen enabled devices. As compared to silicon, graphene is said to have one hundred times the electron mobility. The use of graphene as a replacement for silicon would result in a faster, cooler and more efficient flow of electricity within our devices.

    In addition to the electrical conductivity benefits of graphene, its physical makeup allows it to be extremely flexible and durable. In fact, it can stretch upwards of 20% of its initial length and is up to 300 times more durable than steel. As an added bonus, it has high heat conductivity as well. Basically, you would have to balance the weight of an elephant onto a pin-point to damage the one atom thick sheet of graphene.

    “This is one of the most significant breakthroughs in graphene research in history. We expect this discovery to accelerate the commercialization of graphene, which could unlock the next era of consumer electronic technology.” - SAIT Labs

    All of these characteristics make graphene the ideal material to build next generation flexible displays, flexible devices, vastly improved individual electronic components and much more.

    What is graphene exactly?

    Simply put, graphene is a one atom thick sheet of carbon atoms. Graphene measures in at 0.33nm, that’s almost one million times thinner than a human hair, 97.7% transparent and is made of carbon, which is far less expensive than the rare earth materials used in most current electronics manufacturing.

    Although ideally suited to the production of flexible displays, graphene has been used to build ultra capacitors, faster transistors and processors and other nanotechnology. We took a good look at graphene, in relation to flexible displays, I encourage you to check that out here.

    So, what exactly is Samsung’s breakthrough with graphene?

    Samsung calls the new method “wafer-scale growth of single-crystal monolayer graphene on
    reusable hydrogen-terminated germanium.”

    Traditionally, graphene has proven difficult, and therefore expensive, to produce. This has been due almost exclusively to the fact that producing graphene, especially in larger contiguous sheets, required a destructive process to transfer the material from its production environment over to the components it is being used to help build. The next biggest difficulty is actually growing graphene from individual ‘seeds,’ as they call them, into a single sheet.

    Graphene Single Sheet Growth

    In the science journal, Science Magazine and ScienceExpress, Samsung describes their new process of uniform growth of single-crystal graphene over wafer-scale areas. They focus on how graphene could be made commercially viable through their new etch-free dry transfer technique that allows them to re-use the production environment for further graphene growth. Previous methods required a liquid based transfer of the graphene, but now, the germanium substrate layer that graphene is produced on top of can be re-used for continual growth of graphene, instead of being destroyed in the transfer process. Here is the abstract introduction to the science journal, just for a good read.

    ABSTRACT
    The uniform growth of single-crystal graphene over wafer-scale areas remains a challenge in the commercial-level manufacturability of various electronic, photonic, mechanical, and other devices based on graphene. Here, we describe wafer-scale growth of wrinkle-free single-crystal monolayer graphene on silicon wafer using a hydrogen-terminated germanium buffer layer. The anisotropic twofold symmetry of the germanium (110) surface allowed unidirectional alignment of multiple seeds, which were merged to uniform single-crystal graphene with predefined orientation. Furthermore, the weak interaction between graphene and underlying hydrogen-terminated germanium surface enabled the facile etch-free dry transfer of graphene and the recycling of the germanium substrate for continual graphene growth.

    The final result is larger and far more efficient production of graphene sheets. With this technique, Samsung could enable the use of graphene in our commercially available everyday electronics. Stronger, more energy and heat efficient flexible touchscreens and devices are all possible.

    What’s next?

    Companies like Nokia, which invested $1.36 billion into graphene research last year, and schools like the University of Manchester, with £50 million from the UK and EU governments, have nearly ten thousand patent applications filed for graphene research. Even then, graphene requires a lot more innovation before it can be produced economically at scale.

    Samsung’s breakthrough in graphene production helps overcome one of the major hurdles that has been preventing widespread adoption of graphene in electronics manufacturing. However, it is not mentioned what overall cost savings are expected, nor at what scale the new techniques will allow graphene to be produced. We’ll be anxiously awaiting the next steps that Samsung takes to bring graphene to the market. 

    So, Samsung Fingers – April Fools’ Day joke, or product teaser?

    Comments

    • Jayfeather787

      Holy crap! Graphene looks like the material of the future. That video explained that graphene is incredible!!!
      I want a graphene phone now!

      • Jonathan Feist

        That is a good video.

      • MasterMuffin

        Haven’t you heard the “graphene is the answer to everything”? :D

    • wat

      So they can put it in processors they sell to Apple before they even use them theirselves just like everything?

    • Mhmd Ahmd

      So they can put it in processors they sell to Apple before they even use them theirselves just like everything?

      http://sm-phone.blogspot.com/

    • sighh

      So pretty much graphite is going to allow the tech community to hype up Samsung products only to find out Samsung has supply issues and then end up getting sued my Apple for some stupid reason and then have them labeled as the ultimate copycats to the public…

      • Jayfeather787

        Typical.

      • Pouf

        Just wait till Apple announce 64-bit graphene… wait, what??
        Don’t be surprised, apple loyal sheep will always believe every nonsensical things being told by Apple..

        • TheWay

          by saying apple loyal sheep? you mean the people who wants to buy quality produducts ?

          • Michael Samsara

            No, what he is getting at is people buying, albeit well made products, but buying them not because they truly understand anything in particular about their actual competitive standing in terms of the technology, its functionality and/or built in negatives of using it – like Apple’s constricting “ecosystem”.

            He is talking about people buying products in what is arguably akin to the type of group think that allows people to feel it is safe – “because everybody else is doing it” – to not have to truly think for themselves and take the time to fully understand the pluses and minuses of a decision or a purchase.

            That is what he is getting at – and that is – whether you admit it or can see it, like it or not – at the heart of Apple’s “success”, because their products are just not that spiffy or that great a value if you do know what you are talking about.

            • derka

              Basically a perfect explanation of how Apple has sold any of it’s OS X generation products. A complete reversal from Mac in it’s heyday, when Macintosh was the scruffy design and quality nerds machine of choice. Now you’re lucky if you can get a nerd to use a Mac product for 5 minutes.

          • MasterMuffin

            I don’t know what those produducts are, but I don’t like them ;)

      • TheWay

        Wow you must really really hate Apple to defend a company that kills people!

        • Michael Samsara

          Are you sure you aren’t talking about Apple? Check back about a year or so and you will find that about 10 workers at one of Apple’s iPhone plants in China committed suicide because the working conditions were so abysmal.

      • Michael Samsara

        You are absolutely right – soon Apple will say it thought of this idea 20 years ago therefore has a patent on the technology and Samsung won’t be allowed to use it. Terrible the way Samsung is always stealing Apple’s ideas and never creating anything.

    • gilahacker

      “Basically, you would have to balance the weight of an elephant onto a pin-point to damage the one atom thick sheet of graphene.”

      That is only true for atomically perfect graphene. Actual production graphene will almost certainly not be atomically perfect (though I think they’ve hit over 90% perfect in the lab). Layering of multiple imperfect 1 atom-thick sheets would still give you amazing durability as it would be statistically unlikely that all the defects would line up.

      • Jonathan Feist

        You are right gilahacker. Which is part of the announcement, they are getting the seeds to align before merging together. I don’t have the numbers, but they certainly want us to believe it is 100% perfect.

        • gilahacker

          Any near-perfect mass-producible graphene would be amazing. Actually “perfect” mass-producible graphene would be… I don’t even know. “Revolutionary” is probably the best word for that. Materials science is cool. :-)

    • Emma Lewis

      Well, iphone is doing much better than Samsung, see http://bit.ly/1ilnneP

      • gilahacker

        This is materials science and goes far beyond cell phones and the Apple/Samsung fanboy war. Don’t be a troll.

      • Hadouken

        You are an ignorant little troll. Go look at sales figures.

        • Emma Lewis

          Hah, Samsung is just a “CTRL+C, CTRL+V”
          The sales figures doesn’t matter, but the product Does.

          • Jesus

            lol… fangirlism asaide, I honestly feel sorry for delusional people like you. My heart goes out to your kids and family.

            • Jayfeather787

              Nice one

        • Breta Sal

          U dumb creature… U wanna look at the sales Figures?, go look which company is going higher.. Apple is.. Proof: http://www.ibtimes.com/apple-beats-coca-cola-google-become-worlds-most-valuable-brand-1412702

          • gils001

            U=You
            “Go look AT which company HAS BETTER SALES FIGURES” Fixed
            Commas aren’t for starting sentences. Genius…. you beautifully dumb creature.

            • TheWay

              THE DUMB CREATURE IS YOU!!!, APPLE EARNS MORE MONEY THAN SAMSUNG,
              How is..who sales more better than who earns more? answer me stupid man?

            • gils001

              Hahaha just like her. :-) Btw I didn’t take sides with anyone and I don’t give a shit about sales figures. Think of me as a neutral party that makes fun of dumb ass comments.

          • http://ionintel.blogspot.com/ Aerosheet

            Apple becomes the most valuable brand? Hmm, they never said that it’s the most innovative or the smartest…

          • TheWay

            Don’t waste your time with those freaks,.. who in the right mind would actually pay 800$ for S5 (a very ugly phone)? the answer to that is the same who are 40 years old and still virgin!

      • Sidney Barksdale

        Where are you getting your information that Apple is doing better than Samsung. Why do you think Apple is always in court with Samsung.

      • gils001

        The fuck? This is totally irrelevant….My god gtfo.

        • Emma Lewis

          Honey, nothing is irrelevant here, i think you haven’t gone through article properly.

          • gils001

            HONEY, The article is informing consumers and enthusiast about a breakthrough manufacturing process that could advance every piece of technology. Samsung manufactures more than just phones. Silly people need to re read before claiming a bias. However, I will applaud your efforts in trolling an article about graphene with your thoughts on apple PHONE sales.

    • gils001

      Wait a minute! I thought silicene is more suitable to our needs. Graphene is said to have no band gap and it would be hard to create a functional transistor without having this property…..?

      • Jonathan Feist

        Silicene certainly does have a future in this same field, but is currently not as far along as graphene in terms of support and production. My understanding is that silicene is essentially the same thing as graphene, just a layer of silicon atoms instead of carbon atoms. Silicene therefore may gain an advantage in that current component manufacturers already have the tools in place to work with silicon.

        Graphene transistors may be ‘hard’ to manufacture, but that is in part what this article is about, they have found a way to better the manufacturing process of single layer graphene, which can then be used as needed to develop electronic components.

        Band Gap may not be available on the single layers of graphene that are discussed in this article, but it is possible to precisely control the band gap of bilayer graphene from 0 to 250meV, which enables fully functional transistors. (http://www-als.lbl.gov/index.php/contact/56-bilayer-graphene-gets-a-bandgap.html)

        In the end, I suspect preference and economics will decide whether graphene or silicene becomes the greater used product. In a perfect world, both would be deployed as best fits their properties.

        The silicene website says:

        The primary reason why graphene is attractive for making transistors is that the electron mobility could reach as high as 200,000 cm2/(Vs), whereas it is only ~1000 cm2/(Vs) for bulk silicon used in chips at room temperature.

        This translates into much faster operating transistors and high-frequency operation. These have been demonstrated in the lab by IBM and others.

        Silicene is predicted to have a mobility almost as large as for graphene. Hence, high-frequency silicene transistors are also expected.

        • gils001

          Thanks I was unsure about the specifics. I recall IBM and others presenting 100+ ghz graphene transistors. I believe that was back in 2011 and they were able to open up a bandgap. Anyways thanks this should be an article!

    • CLAU

      VALIOSA INVESTIGACION, CONOCER EL GRAFENO PARA MASIFICAR CANTIDAD DE PRODUCTOS. MUY BIEN

      • Jonathan Feist

        Agreed. We are excited to see where graphene goes, and to have it in the electronics we use.

    • annaarron

      Extraordinary occupation Samsung. If its not too much trouble stick to this and surrender composing software
      http://goo.gl/tM2Y5k

    • Shark Bait

      Do we have better batteries yet?

      • Michael Samsara

        Exactly! Perfect comment and humorous rejoinder.

    • Android Developer

      Will it also make the devices more durable against falls on the ground?
      Or just the electronics inside?

    • renz

      so when we will see graphene going to replace silicon in our microprocessor?

    • DR. EDWARD SIEGEL

      FROM DR. KARL-LUDWIG “MONJU” (“KLM”) SIEGEL

      A, IF NOT THE, FATHER OF BOTH EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL NANO-PHYSICS
      AFTER:

      KUBO(1962)-FULDE(1965)-MATSUBARA(1960s-200s)

      [U.OF MICHIGAN(UM) & MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY(MSU) & FORD
      SCIENTIFIC-LABORATORY & GENERAL-MORORS RESEARCH & WESTINGHOUSE &
      PSEG & IAEA & ABB REPORTS[1968-2000s]:

      [MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING(1971); PHYSICS STATUS SOLIDI(1972);
      SCRIPTA METALLURGICA(1971-1979: 13, 913(1979)=WITH T. MATSUBARA!!!; PHYSICS
      & CHEMISTRY OF LIQUIDS(1975; 1976)=EIGHT-PAPERS; STATPHYS-13,
      HAIFA(1977)=WITH T. MATSUBARA!!!; INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LATTICE-DYNAMICS,
      PARIS(1977)=WITH T. MATSUBARA!!!;

      SEMICONDUCTORS & INSULATORS (1979)=THREE CONTIGUOUS-PAPERS!!!

      INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MAGNETIC ALLOYS & OXIDES(ICMAO),
      HAIFA(1977)=PUBLISHED IN JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM & MAGNETIC MATERIALS, VOLUME
      7(1978)=

      PAGE 338=FIRST PREDICTION OF COLOSSAL-MAGNETORESISTANCE (CMR)!!!

      &

      PAGE 312 = FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY OF GIANT-MAGNELORESISTANCE (GMR)!!!

      INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, MUNICH(1992)!!!=PUBLISHED IN
      APPLIED-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY(1992)

      [GOOGLE: :EDWARD SIEGEL APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY”]

      THE M O S T TELLING FACTUAL STATEMENT IN THE SAMSUNG GRAPHENE-PREPARATION
      BREAKTHROUGH ARTICLE/PRESS RELEASE/MEDIA HYPE/P.R./ SPIN-DOCTORING/”SHOW0-BIZ”/…/”BUSH-WAAA-…—AAAH!!!/AKA
      B.S.!!!/

      “FULL OF ‘FURY’; SIGNIFYING (MOST-PROBABLY) ABSOLUTELY NOTHING”!!!

      IS:

      “This doesn’t mean that we’ll suddenly
      see computer chips made out of graphene instead of silicon, though — we still
      haven’t found a way of giving graphene a bandgap, which means it’s actually
      fairly useless as far as digital computing goes.”

      ASIDE FROM BAND-GAP GENERATION AND REPRODUCIBLE FABRICATION IS THE BOSE-EINSTEIN
      CONDENSATION( ) “BAND”-GAP OF ANTONOFF[ENGLERT{2007
      PHYSICS NOBEL-PRIZE!!!}-BROUT-HIGGS]-SIEGEL SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC-INVERSION OF
      CLASSIC BUT QUANTUM(!!!) LOG-LAW NEWCOMB(1881)-POINCARE(1912)-WEYL(1914;1916)-BENFORD(1938)-RAIMI(1969)-NIGRINI-HILL(1995)-…
      TO YIELD

      O N L Y BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-STATISTICS(BEC)

      WITH INHERENT INTRINSIC GAP-FUL BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION!!!(BEC!!!)

      AS T H E

      ACHILLES-HEEL OF DIGITAL!!!-COMPUTING/…/DIGITAL(!!!) ANYTHING!!!/ EVERYTHING!!!:

      ITS VERY

      D I G I T S ! ! !

      WHY???

      [FOR: CONSULTING!, LICENSING!!; SALE!!!;

      CATEGORYSEMANTICS@GMAIL.COM; NORTONSIEGEL@GMAIL.COM;

      c/o: USA+(206) 733-0504]

      “CYBER-“SECURITY”??? / CYBER-TERRORISM! / CYBER- W A R ! ! !

      VIA

      SIEGEL-ANTONOFF[BROUT-ENGLERT(2013 PHYSICS NOBEL-PRIZE!!!)-HIGGS]-…

      D I G I T!!! (S!!!)– P H Y S I C S !!!

      INTERSECTION/ BOSE-EINSTEIN(!!!) QUANTUM-STATISTICS(BEQS) =

      BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION(!!!)(BEC)!!!/ UNION WITH

      BARABASI-ALBERT-BIANCOMI(BAB) NE T W O R K (S) [EVOLVING/”COMPLEX”)- P H Y S
      I C S !!!

      Network-Physics(NP) Barabasi-Albert-Bianconi Bose-Einstein

      Quantum-Statistics Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC)

      Intersection/Union With

      Euler-Newcomb-Weyl-Benford-Kac-Hill Digits Logarithm-Law Algebraic-Inversion

      GapFUL BEC Commonality Hill(1995) Proof Via SCALE-INVARIANCE Commonality:

      DIGITAL(#)-VULNERABILITY versus FAULT-TOLERANT ANALOG-Networks; (so
      miscalled)

      "Computational"-"Complexity" Cook-Levin theorem
      REDUCIBILITY/COMPLETENESS

      Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-60-124]

      digits logarithmic- (Newcomb[Am. J. Math.4,39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett.
      Nachr.(1914);

      Math. Ann. 77,313(1916)]-Benford[J. Am. Phil. Soc. 78,115(1938)]-Kac[The

      Mathematics of

      Statistical-Reasoning(1955)])-”NeWBe”/”OLDbe”)-law

      algebraic-inversion

      to ONLY Bose-Einstein Quantum-Statistics with digit d = 0 gapFUL

      Bose-Einstein-CONDENSATION(BEC): digits are quanta are (ONLY) bosons because

      quanta can be bosons always were digits!!!

      Hill[Proc. Am. Math.Soc., 123,3,887(1995)] pure-mathematics
      proof(finally!!!)

      via units-invariance = logarithm-function (1,0)-fixed-point base-invariance
      =

      SCALE-INVARIANCE connects with Barabasi-Bianconi-Albert[Science

      287,2115a(2000); Int. Jour. Mod. Phys. B 15, 313-320 (2001); Phys. Rev.
      Letters

      86,5632(2001); Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,47(2002);...]

      “scale-free”/SCALE-INVARIANCE networks-physics: evolving

      complex-graph-theory 1:1-mapping onto statistical-physics/mechanics!!!

      Synthesis reveals electromagnetic-pulse(EMP)-like SEVERE VULNERABILITY of

      ONLY/ALL PURELY-DIGITAL-networks(VS. FAULT-TOLERANT ANALOG-networks

      INvulnerability) via Barabasi-Bianconi-Albert “Network-Physics”

      scale-free SCALE-INVARIANCE relative-”statics”(VS.

      dynamics-[Willinger-Alderson-Doyle(Not.AMS(5/09)]-]critique)!!! (so called)

      “Quantum-computing is simple-arithmetic(sans division/factorization);

      algorithmic-complexities: INtractibility/UNdecidability/INefficiency/

      NON-computability/HARDNESS(so MIScalled)

      “noise”-induced-phase-transitions(NITS) ACCELERATION: Cook-Levin

      theorem Reducibility is Renormalization-(Semi)-Group fixed-points;

      number-Randomness DEFINITION via WHAT? Query(VS. Goldreich[Not.AMS(2002)]
      How?

      mea culpa)can ONLY be Maxwell-Boltzmann classical-statistics

      “infinitely-hot-plasma” versus digit-clumping

      “NeWBe”-logarithm-law NON-random BEC; Modular-arithmetic
      Congruences

      = Signal X Noise PRODUCTS = clock-model; NON-Shor
      Holthaus-Page-Weiss[Physica

      A,341,586(04)] BEC logarithmic-law inversion factorization: Watkins

      number-theory intersection/connections to statistical-physics/mechanics);

      P=/=NP TRIVIAL Proof: Euclid!!! [(So Miscalled) computational-complexity(VS.

      Siegel physics-"complexity" is UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!)

      jargonial-obfurscation(J-O) obviation via classic Greek plane-geometry.]

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