Factory Reset Protection can be easily bypassed on Android N and unpatched stock Marshmallow

by: Bogdan PetrovanMarch 17, 2016

factory reset protection factory data

Factory Reset Protection (FRP), a protection measure that’s supposed to prevent thieves from using stolen Android devices, is easy to bypass on some Nexus devices running on unpatched versions of stock Marshmallow or even Android N preview.

In case you’re not familiar with FRP, here’s how it works: if a device that has a Google account associated to it is reset to factory settings, FRP will ask for the credentials of that Google account before the system loads up.

In theory, if someone steals your device, the thief won’t be able to just reset it and go on their merry way using it, because they don’t know your Google account password.

In practice, at least until the March security update, it was simple to bypass FRP. The method, discovered by RootJunky, involves just a few simple steps that anyone can follow, even without any knowledge of Android. It’s a basic exploit of security holes in Google’s keyboard, dialer, and messaging apps and the OS itself. Here’s a video showing how to bypass FRP on a Nexus 6P:

Now, it appeared that Google had patched the issue in the January security update. It did not – earlier this week, I used this exploit to get into a Nexus 6P (running on the February patch) that had accidentally remained locked to one of my colleagues’ Google accounts.

Instead of asking for their personal Google credentials, I decided to give this video a shot, and, sure enough, it worked – I managed to get into the device, activate developer options, make the bootloader unlockable, and reset the device. I removed my colleague’s account and entered mine, like FRP didn’t even exist.

I wasn’t able to test whether the hole was patched in the March update, but the security bulletin mentions an “Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability in Setup Wizard” issue described as follows:

A vulnerability in the Setup Wizard could enable an attacker who had physical access to the device to gain access to device settings and perform a manual device reset. This issue is rated as Moderate severity because it could be used to improperly work around the factory reset protection.

That sounds a lot like this problem. Then again, three issues with the same description were marked as fixed in the February and January updates, and I was still able to bypass FRP.

A similar exploit exists for Android N preview – RootJunky published this video showing the steps required to bypass FRP on a Nexus 6P with Android N. The procedure involves a few more steps, but it’s so simple that even a seven-year-old could follow.

This is clearly a serious issue with Factory Reset Protection. If phone thieves with no technical skills can bypass FRP, it negates the entire purpose of the feature, theft deterrence.

The good news is that, thanks to monthly security patches, issues like this can be fixed relatively quickly. The bad news is, it didn’t take RootJunky much to find a different path around FRP and that makes me wonder how secure the whole system is. And security patches only protect people who actively install them in the first place. Outside our Android bubble, people tend to ignore update notifications for weeks, and that’s assuming they even get them on their devices.

  • Virtual anomaly

    It’s kind of hard for me to ignore update bubbles since the notification dosnt go away and it’s annoying

  • Shawn Hamm

    My solution for theft protection: Associate a device’s serial number to a Google account during initial setup (on Android device manager). Then require authenticating that user’s credentials to use fastboot or adb at all. Amdroid device manager should be the only way to remove a Google account association, too.

    This method would also uncouple the unlocking method from the device’s software environment, making recovery more convenient for a legitimate owner.

    • Shawn Hamm

      Also, both of these methods would be null if they completely disable sharing during initial setup.

  • makssa

    meizu done this properly. They bind account with IMEI of the phone.

  • ezequiel

    hey bro. can you help me with my Samsung galaxy s7 edge? is there any way to get in the phone? coz i hard reset it, and now it didnt recognize my google account, and it was the only account that was used in the phone. its brand new.
    sorry if my english is a little bit poor.
    hope you can help me with this.

  • indra gunawan

    my device ZTE blade x9. i already done that step. but when the phone reboot, FRP still apeared. help me ASAP bro

    • Jude Binala

      same here for my cherrymobile J1plus

  • Rayn

    It figures.. How long do we have to wait for Android to catch up to Apple in terms of security?
    These gaping holes in android OS make the S7 fingerprint scanner just another gimmick, instead of a security measure

  • Larry Lucas

    Viewed the videos but when I go to the step after the @ key any of the next steps won’t allow me to tap the icons at top right of screen. Want to set up as new Google user for my granddaughter

  • XoTiK Savage

    Every time I create a new user and go to set it up, it just forces me back to the owner. Any clue what to do about that?